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The promise and challenges of AI

威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家在vns威尼斯vns9080的发展和使用中发挥着越来越大的作用, including how it can be used to improve mental health

引用这
American Psychological Association. (2021年11月). The promise and challenges of AI. 监控 on Psychology, 52(8). http://www.美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会.org/monitor/2021/11/cover-artificial-intelligence

Graphic with a head and an eye to depict cover story on artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI), which enables machines to perform advanced, 人类的功能, promises breakthroughs across society—in health care, 运输, 教育, 金融, 及以后. 在他们最好的, AI tools perform tasks at a much greater speed, 规模, 或比人类精确的程度——为vns威尼斯vns9080腾出时间和资源来解决机器无法解决的问题. 聊天机器人 can provide support around the clock; crawlers can scour websites and databases for information; self-driving cars hold the potential to make commutes safer and 更多的 efficient.

But the technology is not without its perils. One striking example happened in 2019, vns威尼斯vns9080人员发现联合健康集团使用的预测算法对黑人患者有偏见. In using health care spending as a proxy for illness, the tool inadvertently perpetuated systemic inequities that have historically kept Black patients from receiving adequate care (Obermeyer, Z.,等., 科学,卷. 366, No. 6464, 2019).

“Algorithms are created by people who have their own values, 道德, 假设, and explicit and implicit biases about the world, and those biases can influence the way AI 模型s function,” said Nicol Turner-Lee, 博士学位, a sociologist and director of the Center for Technology Innovation at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. Because of these ongoing concerns about equity, 隐私, 和信任, there’s a growing recognition among researchers and industry experts that responsible innovation requires a sophisticated understanding of human behavior. 为实现这一目标, psychologists are helping develop and deploy AI software and technologies, including everything from therapeutic chatbots to facial-recognition systems. They’re also amassing a robust literature on human-computer interaction, 数字疗法, and the ethics of automation.

“As we are developing these emerging technologies, we have to ask ourselves: How will societies interact with them?” said psychologist Arathi Sethumadhavan, 博士学位, principal research manager on Microsoft’s ethics and society team. “That’s where psychologists come into play, because we are very good at understanding people’s behaviors, 动机, and perceptual and cognitive c美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会bilities and limitations.”

从模型到市场

构建为vns威尼斯vns9080技术提供燃料的算法,听起来可能像是计算机科学家的专有领域, 但vns威尼斯vns9080人类智能的威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家也在帮助解开增强机器智能的方法.

例如, AI systems often struggle to make informed guesses about things they haven’t seen before—something that even young children can do well. In a series of studies comparing the way children and machines learn, Alison Gopnik, 博士学位, 加州大学威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978教授兼哲学副教授, 加州大学伯克利分校, and her colleagues have found that kids surpass AI systems in several areas, including exploratory learning, 社会学习, and building mental 模型s (科学美国人, 2017年6月).

She is now working with computer scientists Pulkit Agrawal, 博士学位, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 和迪帕克·帕沙克, 博士学位, of Carnegie Mellon University, to adapt AI technologies in light of those findings. 在其他方面, 戈普尼克的团队正在vns威尼斯vns9080人类如何让机器对周围的世界更加有趣和好奇.

Pathak and Agrawal have programmed an agent to investigate and 模型 unknown parts of virtual environments; using this technique, it can perfectly master a Mario Brothers game. But one persistent problem is that machines have trouble distinguishing random, unpredictable noise—such as a square of static—from interesting but surprising new events. 另一方面,孩子们擅长从无关的噪音中分离出相关的新信息.

“That’s the big challenge now,” Gopnik said. “vns威尼斯vns9080能否弄清楚如何让vns威尼斯vns9080不仅对正确的事物感到好奇,而且对正确的事物感到好奇?”

These algorithms eventually evolve into products that people use, opening up a host of new promises and perils, which psychologists are also exploring. 在微软, Sethumadhavan进行了定性和定量vns威尼斯vns9080,以了解人们如何看待vns威尼斯vns9080技术, then she incorporates those insights into product development.

例如, participants in a recent study of facial-recognition technology perceived advantages to the technology for building access and airport screening—because of clear safety and efficiency gains—but were less bullish on its use for employee monitoring or for providing personalized assistance in retail environments.

“人类, 只要有时间, are always doing a value exchange, weighing the benefits to them and what they are giving up in return,”Sethumadhavan说, adding that the findings can help developers to consider the contexts of use prior to deploying emerging AI technologies and to build the appropriate level of trust with users.

除了vns威尼斯vns9080最终用户,Sethumadhavan的团队记录了受影响的利益相关者的态度. When developing Microsoft’s synthetic speech technology, 她采访了配音演员,以了解这项技术如何影响他们的生计. As a result, Microsoft now requires customers of the service to obtain 知情同意 from any voice actors they employ.

“Ethical product development is not a box to check, 但了解最终用户和其他受影响的利益相关者的需求和关注点,实际上有助于你更好地创新,”她说.

自动驾驶汽车, which promise major safety and efficiency gains, rely on AI to perceive, 解释, and respond to road conditions and hazards. According to a report by the RAND Corporation, autonomous vehicles can save hundreds of thousands 更多的 lives if they are deployed en masse when they are 10% safer than the average human driver rather than waiting until they have nearly perfect safety records (Kalra, N., & 林,D. G., 善的敌人, 2017). 但让公众参与进来可能会遇到与技术障碍同样多的心理障碍, Azim说Shariff, 博士学位, an associate professor of 威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978 at the University of British Columbia who studies human-computer interaction and the ethics of automation.

Shariff’s research indicates that people demand much higher levels of safety from autonomous vehicles than from those operated by humans (Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies,卷. 126, 2021). This is due in part to “algorithm aversion”—our tendency to distrust decisions made by algorithms—and the “better than average” effect, 与普通人相比,vns威尼斯vns9080高估了自己的能力(“自动驾驶汽车可能比平均水平高出10%, 但我好了20%”).

事实上, a focus on the safety gains associated with self-driving cars could backfire, 说Shariff, because people also exhibit a “betrayal aversion,” or a reluctance to risk potential harm by something meant to enhance their safety.

“人们真的不喜欢被本应保护他们安全的东西伤害,”他说. “If self-driving cars are sold primarily as safety mechanisms, people will overreact every time there’s an accident.”

另一方面, Gopnik argues that designing safe and effective self-driving cars may be 更多的 complicated than we once thought—and require insights not just from physics but also from social 威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978.

“人们开车时做的大多数事情都是这种令人惊叹的社会协调努力,”她说. “Getting machines to do things that may seem straightforward actually requires a much 更多的 sophisticated understanding of the world and each other than we initially realized.”

An adjunct, not an alternative

在精神卫生保健领域,伦理和行为方面的考虑同样重要, where AI tools serve two primary functions. Some algorithms operate behind the scenes to predict health risks or recommend personalized treatment plans and others interface directly with patients in the form of therapeutic chatbots.

The smartphone 应用程序 Woebot, 例如, uses machine learning and natural language processing to deliver cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to tens of thousands of daily users. By exchanging short text messages with a chatbot, users can address stress, relationship problems, 通过学习CBT的概念,如过度概括和全有或全无思维,以及其他担忧(Fitzpatrick), K. K.,等., JMIR心理健康,卷. 4, No. 2, 2017).

在幕后, AI technology fuels hundreds of therapeutic programs, such as the online therapy platform Talkspace, which has developed a suicide alert system that uses natural language processing to analyze written communication between patients and their therapists (Bantilan, N.,等., Psychotherapy Research,卷. 31, No. 3, 2021) and is testing AI interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (Malgaroli, M.,等., Journal of Medical Internet Research,卷. 22, No. 4, 2020).

Some AI-based programs—including EndeavorRx, 一种旨在治疗注意力缺陷/多动障碍的电子游戏甚至已经得到了美国的批准.S. Food and Drug Administration for use under medical supervision (Kollins, S. H.,等., npj数字医学,卷. 4, 2021).

Most psychologists see AI technologies as an adjunct, rather than an alternative, to traditional psychological treatment. “We’re not trying to replace therapists—there’s no replacement for human connection,” said psychologist Alison Darcy, 博士学位, the founder and president of Woebot Health. “But we can rethink some of the tools that have traditionally been the unique domain of the clinic and design them so that they are 更多的 accessible.”

AI therapeutic tools offer a few clear advantages over traditional mental health care. Machines are available 24 hours a day, 他们从不疲倦, they have an encyclopedic knowledge of the psychological literature, and they remember every interaction they’ve had with a client, said psychologist Skip Rizzo, 博士学位, director for medical virtual reality at the University of Southern California’s Institute for Creative Technologies. 他们可以实时提供治疗,还可以根据客户的喜好进行定制, including to enhance cultural competence. 数字治疗工具还可以通过降低成本和减少耻辱感,大大降低获得精神卫生保健的障碍.

But digital mental health is still a “wild west” in the nascent stages of research, 应用程序, 和伦理问题, David Luxton说, 博士学位, 他是华盛顿大学医学院的临床威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家和附属副教授. Safety and efficacy are chief concerns, Rizzo added. Most platforms direct users toward support resources during a suspected mental health crisis—and include prominent disclaimers about intended use—but some people may still regard these tools as a substitute for therapy (Professional Psychology: Research and Practice,卷. 45, No. 5, 2014).

“An app may be based on CBT, but that doesn’t mean that the app itself is evidence-based,Luxton说:. “没有经过许可的治疗师使用它的人可能依赖于一些未经测试的东西,而这些东西实际上可能会造成伤害.”

Another problem afflicting both 数字疗法 and other AI products is “algorithmic bias”—when 模型s make biased predictions because of limitations in the training data set or 假设 made by a programmer. Women, Black people, and Hispanic people are underrepresented in the field of computer science, and homogenous programming teams are 更多的 likely to make errors, 例如 making 假设 about 教育al attainment or health care access, that result in biased AI (Cowgill, B.,等., Proceedings of the 21st ACM Conference on Economics and Computation, 2020). But social scientists can anticipate such 假设 and help developers understand the lived experiences of populations represented in various data sets, 说Turner-Lee.

“This is especially important when algorithms are applied in ‘sensitive use’ cases, 包括信贷, 就业, 教育, 和卫生保健,”她说.

另一方面, AI 模型s may hold the power to reduce health disparities. 例如, osteoarthritis tends to be 更多的 painful for Black patients than non-Black patients, but standard tests only explain 9% of that variance. 一组vns威尼斯vns9080人员使用机器学习算法,而不是人类评分系统来分析患者的膝关节x光片, they found physical indicators that explained 43% of the racial disparity in pain (Pierson, E.,等., 自然医学,卷. 27, 2021).

理解人类如何与科技互动也是心理健康聊天机器人成功的关键. We know that a primary driver of change in therapy is the therapeutic relationship, but in the case of 数字疗法, that relationship is between a human and a computer. 早期vns威尼斯vns9080表明,用户可以从向机器人吐露情感中获益(Ho, a.,等., Journal of Communication,卷. 68, No. 4, 2018) and even form a therapeutic bond (Darcy, A.,等., JMIR Formative Research,卷. 5, No. 5, 2021). 托马斯·德里克船体, 博士学位, a psychologist who works with Talkspace and the behavioral weight-loss platform Noom, 还发现,当聊天机器人不伪装成人类时,用户倾向于与它们互动.

Hull and his colleagues are exploring ways for AI technology to further enhance the process of psychotherapy by using the vast archives of anonymized data collected during Talkspace sessions. 例如, 自然语言处理可能能够识别表明治疗联盟破裂的语音模式. A similar algorithm could compare session transcripts with treatment plans and nudge therapists to revisit a topic of concern with a client. AI also holds promise for improving the patient-therapist match, said Hull. By querying vast data sets, researchers may be able to better operationalize client characteristics, therapist characteristics, and what constitutes an ideal match.

“在治疗的背景下,使患者和临床医生独一无二的品质是至关重要的,”赫尔说. “These characteristics are, 然而, understudied because the number and complexity is 更多的 than we could realistically track, 模型, 和比较. vns威尼斯vns9080可以改变这一点.”

Still, 隐私 concerns remain where data mining is concerned. In 2020, The New York Times 报道 that Talkspace executives read excerpts from therapy sessions during a company meeting without maintaining anonymity for the patient, who was an employee of the organization. Talkspace maintains it obtained the full consent of the client. 美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会’s 道德 Code and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require that health care data be fully de-identified before it is shared in order to preserve patient confidentiality.

“这些公司有必要非常清楚可能挖掘哪些数据,以及他们计划如何使用这些数据,黛博拉·贝克说, JD, 美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会’s director of legal and regulatory policy.

的下一个前沿

随着越来越复杂的vns威尼斯vns9080技术——包括自动武器和情感检测软件——不断涌现, 威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家在有效和负责地开展这些活动方面发挥着重要作用.

For mental health care, the next frontier involves merging facial recognition, natural language processing, and ­emotion-detection algorithms to make complex assessments about mood and mental states, said Matteo Malgaroli, 博士学位, 纽约大学格罗斯曼医学院的临床威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家和助理教授. These technologies are already being applied in marketing contexts, where the stakes are significantly lower.

“If you don’t buy my hamburger, I might lose a few dollars,” he said. “但如果有人对抑郁症做出了错误的评估,可能会产生非常严重的后果.”

因为这个原因, it’s essential that psychologists participate in the development of clinical AI technologies to ensure algorithms capture data and deliver outcomes that are consistent with validated psychological practices, Malgaroli说.

前进, AI holds the potential to empower traditionally marginalized populations, Sethumadhavan说. In an ongoing fellowship with the World Economic Forum’s AI and machine learning team, she is exploring how the technology can help meet the needs of the aging population, 会超过1.到2050年达到60亿. AI may ultimately help address social isolation, 运输 and mobility, mental and physical health, 照顾者负担, and end-of-life planning for this group (vns威尼斯vns9080和老龄化, World Economic Forum, 2021).

最终, 美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会的道德准则将帮助威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978家在威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978公平的问题日益增多的情况下谨慎行事, 安全, and surveillance raised by AI technology.

“If the end user doesn’t trust the system, then it’s not going to work,Luxton说:. “Violating that trust risks the reputation of our entire profession.”

What is artificial intelligence?

vns威尼斯vns9080技术分析来自环境的大量信息,以高水平的确定性解决问题.

深度学习 例如,算法在非常大的数据集中搜索模式,以识别同时出现的变量, 一个人短信的内容和随后抑郁发作的可能性.

Reinforcement learning systems complete many trials of a task (for instance, distinguishing between images of cats and dogs) to develop expertise.

Developers use a range of mathematical validation techniques to check whether their 模型s are making accurate predictions about the real world. 例如, 标准做法是在已知输出的现有数据集上测试算法,然后测量模型的命中率.

vns威尼斯vns9080的常见应用包括感知和响应视觉刺激(“计算机视觉”), 解释ing and producing human speech (“natural language processing”), and identifying patterns in very large data sets (“machine learning”).

美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会’s Technology, 心 & 学会会议上

For 更多的 cutting-edge science in the development, 部署, and ethics of artificial intelligence, attend 美国威尼斯城所有登入网址vns85978协会’s Technology, 心 & Society conference, Nov. 3–5.

Many sessions will also be available following the conference.